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Tuesday, May 16

  1. page eating edited ... Eating disorders are becoming increasingly common but are nothing new to society; they have be…
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    Eating disorders are becoming increasingly common but are nothing new to society; they have been around for centuries. Many people often feel the need to be skinny in order to fit into society. A person with an eating disorder is diagnosed when their condition becomes clinically significant and they "suffer from extreme disturbances in their eating behavior that is caused by obsessive or irrational fear of gaining weight." Although, psychological factors and social variables play an important role in the development of this type of disorder. Eating disorders can be a serious type of behavioral problems that can greatly interfere with the well being of an individual, not only can their health be greatly affected, but also their emotional and psychological well being.
    Eating disorders are characterized by severe disturbances in an individual's eating behavior. A person with an eating disorder can use eating, purging or food restricting to attempt to cope with problems they may be experiencing. Some underlying issues that could be associated with eating disorders could include low self-esteem, depression, feelings of loss of control, feelings of worthlessness, identity concerns, family communication problems, and an inability to deal with emotions.
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    to body dismorphicdysmorphic disorder which
    In the DSM-V, some of the proposed changes include the addition of purging disorder (recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating) and night eating syndrome.
    2. Statistics
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    People that suffer from Anorexia Nervosa typically view themselves as overweight. The term anorexia means "loss of appetite"; however, individuals that have anorexia constantly feel hungry since they constantly deprive their body of adequate nutrition. Often time's individuals with anorexia refuse to eat in order to lose weight. If they feel they have gained weight, they may use extreme measurements to become thin, such as using laxatives, induce vomiting, excessive exercise, consuming diet or diuretic pills, and obsessing all caloric intake of everything they eat.
    Some anorexic women consider amenorrhea as a milestone in weight loss; if they are menstruating they often think they are too fat.
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    deny how severleysevereley underweight they
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    obsession with wieghtweight typically begins
    The signs and symptoms of anorexia can include: low body temperature, coldness in the extremities, and constipation for some time. The individuals with anorexia nervosa are unable to tolerate cold temperatures; they also often report fatigue or tiredness, episodes of dizziness, constipation, periodic vomiting, and shortness of breath. Individuals also tend to develop irregular menstrual cycles or actually lose their periods for long stages of time due to malnutrition and being underweight. Anorexia can also effect a woman's fertility. In females, there are low levels of serum estrogen, and there are low levels of serum testosterone in men. Thinning of the hair, sunken eyes like low in eyelids, and puffy cheeks are some of the most observable signs that one may be anorexic. The individuals, however, are unable to tell that these characteristics are seen as abnormal towards others. Anorexia nervosa is commonly co-morbid with mood disorders. Many individuals with the eating disorder also report anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia disorders. People who suffer from anorexia also tend to have a harder time with concentration due to the fact that they are constantly reminded by their body of its nutritional needs.
    The behaviors expressed tend to be more introverted like social withdrawal in particular situations and decreased interest in sex over time. An individual who views themselves as excessively thin may feel sexually undesirable resulting in a reduction of sexual interest. Recovery rates are low for anorexia nervosa. Although 50% achieve partial recovery, only 10% fully recover from the disorder. Within the first five years of the diagnosis, many individuals with the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa will develop an eating pattern that is more typical of the binge-eating/purging subtypes. If unchecked, chronic starvation and weight loss can result in severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance that may require hospitalization if not cared for or attended to soon.
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    Epidemiology
    In women, anorexia nervosa can occur between a percentage rate of 0.5% to 3%. The lifetime prevalence rate of this disorder is around 0.5%. Approximately 1% of the population will be diagnosed with anorexia nervosa in a lifetime, and there is some concern that this rate is increasing. Since the 1930s, there has been an increasing number of anorexia nervosa cases. This may be due to the increase in the prevalence of industrialized societies, as well as the constant pressure to be thin as implicated by the mass media (characteristics of personality and the cultural approval of thinness). Television shows constantly portray favorable bias toward thin, better looking people as opposed to those who are considered to be overweight individuals.
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    with a strssfulstressful life event.
    Etiology
    Socio-cultural factors: Industrialized societies place great value on women who are thin. Evidence of this can be seen in the entertainment industry, (such as movies, TV shows, advertising and catalogs), where nearly all of the women featured are thin. Being thin is considered better than being bigger. Through this media, young women are conditioned to believe that only "thin" is beautiful, and they may become obsessed with attaining this image, such as an hour glass figure (big in the hips and thin in the waist). Inner beauty is not a factor in the real-world which helps one achieve success; it is physical appearance and social capital. Furthermore, being thin in these industrialized societies is culturally reinforced by what the favorable definitions are for popularity. Since men are also conditioned to believe that "thin" is beautiful, the attention that petite women receive from the opposite sex acts to reinforce women's attitudes that they look good being thin and that is the body image men desire. Anorexia Nervosa is far more prevalent in industrial societies such as the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and South Africa. Moreover, eating disorders are less prevalent in societies where women have fewer decision-making responsibilities.
    Psychological Factors: Individuals with anorexia nervosa tend to be perfectionists, a person who places very high standards on everything and is displeased with things if they fall short of the expected standard, which affects the way they look at their body. They become so obsessed with achieving the image of the "ideal woman" that they will push themselves to dangerous extremes and begin possessing obsessive or narcissistic qualities. They also engage in compulsive behavior, which includes frequently checking their appearance and weight, like combing their hair, shaving, brushing teeth, or even repetitive flossing. These individuals crave control, especially over their eating habits, by engaging in restrictive diets and always eating the same thing because nothing else is satisfying. They in return learn to ignore the resulting internal cues of hunger. Psychological symptoms of anorexia consist of those characteristics that are related to the development of the disorder and those that are secondary to the disorder.
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    rates for mono-zygoticmonozygotic (identical) twins
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    rates for dy-zygoticdyzygotic (nonidentical or
    Empirically supported treatments
    Anorexia nervosa is difficult to treat and relapse is common among the patients with the disorder. Most anorexic individuals do not see a problem with themselves and, consequently, are not admitted to treatment by their own accord. Often, a friend of the troubled individual has to intervene and recommend that he or she seek help to further their daily functioning. Help may be gained either through medication or behavioral therapies. Denial, coupled with an individual's unwillingness to participate in treatment, can make changing a patient's attitude very challenging.
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    When treating the young women and men who are suffering from anorexia nervosa, the most common technique is through family therapy. In family therapy, the clinician usually tries to change the patient's attitude about their body image. They also try to increase the patient’s self-esteem by teaching him or her to accept the way his or her body looks and becoming satisfied with it. The family attends these counseling sessions with the patient and will gain control over the patient's eating habits until the patient can maintain healthy habits oneself. They also reinforce what the clinician says. For example, the family members may stress that the patient's body is fine and satisfying to the public eye. Families may also be asked to monitor exercise habits. If the patient exercises excessively, they will need to improve the workout by designating only a certain amount of time a day for exercise. However, this technique usually only lasts for a short period of time and the patient becomes bored with the activities. This is due to the fact that many patients are in denial and tend to get into a relapse or think that they are really fine, that everyone is jealous around them because they are better.
    Another technique for treating people diagnosed with anorexia nervosa is attending self-help groups. The American Anorexia Bulimia Association is one organization that provides support groups for those who are suffering from eating disorders that need to talk it out with others experiencing the same problems. The more "experienced," affected individuals with anorexia nervosa are very good when telling the "newbies" how to deal with certain problems they already have experienced. The same techniques do not work for everyone but can help ignorant patients that do not know where to turn for help. People can gather and give each other support to help them recover from this disorder and prevent them from going into denial or put in a relapse.
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    lack of mensturationmenstruation due to
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    their bone funcitoningfunctioning and stability
    Parenting classes have been a new and upcoming technique that helps parents learn how to build self-esteem in their kids. This treatment helps the teen to value themselves as a person and learn to trust their abilities and feelings while working toward their goals.
    -- Individuals who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa believe that they are improving their appearance while often harming themselves by abstaining from food. See video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XVkPpDJfYE
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    A person with Bulimia Nervosa suffers from "body image disturbance", which makes them unable to perceive their body size accurately. By having these distorted thoughts about their body, they avoid looking into a mirror. People suffering from bulimia nervosa are usually not noticed right away. They seem normal in appearance and are not noticed as easily as anorexics are in public settings. This is because they engage in binge eating activities privately as a solitary activity. People with bulimia nervosa consume their food at a rapid pace, and this may be present along with depression feelings, environmental influential factors, irritability, and tension in some parts of their life. After a binge episode, feelings of guilt and depression follow, forcing the bulimic into purging behaviors which allows them to regain control of the situation. The actual word, bulimia, is translated as "hunger like an ox."
    They experience fluctuating weight loss, but unlike anorexia nervosa, people with bulimia nervosa are still able to maintain the average weight with respect to their height, so they appear relatively normal. Bulimia nervosa is more of a mental aspect than a physical one such as private eating activities. Compared to the rest of the population or those with regular eating habits, people with bulimia nervosa are still considered to be the thinner individuals. Them also wear loose-fitting clothes in order to hide their bodies.
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    training and inindividualin individual or group
    These individuals may have scabs or nicks on their knuckles from constantly trying to make themselves vomit. Their teeth and esophagus suffer from the constant presence of acid. The recurrent vomiting can lead to loss of dental enamel, and their teeth may appear chipped and ragged. Excessive vomiting also leads to scratched and discolored fingernails due to the patient sticking them down the throat. Sometimes, the salivary glands become permanently enlarged. Also, a person suffering from bulimia will usually display the often recognized "chipmunk cheeks" because they are inflamed due to repeated vomiting. Amenorrhea and chronic bowel problems are also associated with this eating disorder.
    Although it is stereotyped that individuals suffering from anorexia nervosa fear the scale, it is actually bulimics that seem to show the most fear of stepping onto a scale. Because bulimia nervosa sufferers have an exaggerated fear of gaining weight, they tend to avoid weighing themselves.
    New findings of associated features
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    alteration in seratoninserotonin levels could
    Symptoms
    1. The patient's laboratory blood studies, including measurement of electrolyte levels are abnormal
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    Gender and cultural differences in presentation
    Females are much more likely to suffer from Bulimia Nervosa than males. About 1 male for every 10 females suffers from Bulimia Nervosa. This is because women tend to care more about their appearance than males. There are no cultural differences among patients with Bulimia Nervosa regarding their symptoms.
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    weight is concideredconsidered to be
    Epidemiology
    About 1% to 3% of people have reported or been diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa during their lifetime, and most are female. The male to female ratio is 1 male to 10 females.
    There are also new studies being conducted that compare the environmental factors of binging and purging habits on the individuals who have Bulimia Nervosa. One of the studies show that there is a 46% binging variance and a 72% vomiting variance. Showing that because of environmental factors, binging can only occur during certain periods while vomiting can happen more frequently. Also, another study in the UK has shown that Bulimia Nervosa is increasing at high rates, almost doubling in occurrence every year, with a lower frequency of occurrence for Anorexia Nervosa.
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    dieting episode. DistrubedDisturbed eating behavior
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    chronic or intermittant,intermittent, with remission
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    Bulimia Nervosa recievereceive mental health
    Etiology
    The cause for this disorder is believed to be less from the desire for food, and more from an interaction between biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Common personality characteristics found in people with this disorder are that they are outgoing, sociable, impulsive, and more sexually active. However, a decrease in sex drive or a person's libido is also reported along with an increase in suicidal behavior.
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    more familial prevalanceprevalence of obesity
    Psychological Factors: Bulimia includes an obsession with thinness, a diminished perception of self-worth, and an impaired sense of self-confidence. People with bulimia also associate thinness with success, attractiveness, and happiness.
    Comorbid Conditions
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  2. page eating edited ... Links: http://www.peoplejam.com/files/u3264/anorexic.jpg Eating Disorders: What's the skinny?…
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    Links: http://www.peoplejam.com/files/u3264/anorexic.jpg
    Eating Disorders: What's the skinny?
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    with anorexia, bulimea,bulimia, and binge-eating.
    A web article from the American Psychological Association: Eating disorders
    Links to statistics: http://www.renfrew.org
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    Children that are in serious life-threatening danger due to rumination may need to be hospitalized until their condition can be stabilized.
    The Mayo Clinic has been one of the leaders in treating Rumination Syndrome and they have a high success rate. For the most successful outcome, the Mayo Clinic uses a collaboration of pediatricians, psychologists and gastroenterologists.
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    to severe regergitation.regurgitation.
    Additional links:
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/thin/program.html
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  3. page eating edited Eating Disorders {http://comenius.susqu.edu/bi/150/2001/eating%20disorders/breakable.jpeg} {ht…

    Eating Disorders
    {http://comenius.susqu.edu/bi/150/2001/eating%20disorders/breakable.jpeg} {http://comenius.susqu.edu/bi/150/2001/eating%20disorders/visualaide-measuri.gif} {http://th483.photobucket.com/albums/rr200/dizzyhigh/back/th_0a97ddd6.jpg}
    Disorder
    {http://th483.photobucket.com/albums/rr200/dizzyhigh/back/th_0a97ddd6.jpg}

    1. Introduction to the Eating Disorders
    Eating disorders are becoming increasingly common but are nothing new to society; they have been around for centuries. Many people often feel the need to be skinny in order to fit into society. A person with an eating disorder is diagnosed when their condition becomes clinically significant and they "suffer from extreme disturbances in their eating behavior that is caused by obsessive or irrational fear of gaining weight." Although, psychological factors and social variables play an important role in the development of this type of disorder. Eating disorders can be a serious type of behavioral problems that can greatly interfere with the well being of an individual, not only can their health be greatly affected, but also their emotional and psychological well being.
    ...
    Anorexia nervosa normally begins in mid to late adolescence (age 14-18 years). It is not likely to see children under the age of 13 with anorexia because of their lack of concern with social acceptance and appearance. Seventeen is the average age of onset of anorexia nervosa. Rare cases of older adults being diagnosed with the disorder do exist, however, it is highly unlikely that an individual over 40 years of age will be diagnosed. Most individuals in the age group of 14-18 are very social, seek relationships and social acceptance much of the time. These individuals may become very self-conscious about their physical appearance, predisposing them to the development of anorexia nervosa.
    Gender and cultural differences in presentation
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    is most prevalent inprevalentin the U.S.
    Epidemiology
    In women, anorexia nervosa can occur between a percentage rate of 0.5% to 3%. The lifetime prevalence rate of this disorder is around 0.5%. Approximately 1% of the population will be diagnosed with anorexia nervosa in a lifetime, and there is some concern that this rate is increasing. Since the 1930s, there has been an increasing number of anorexia nervosa cases. This may be due to the increase in the prevalence of industrialized societies, as well as the constant pressure to be thin as implicated by the mass media (characteristics of personality and the cultural approval of thinness). Television shows constantly portray favorable bias toward thin, better looking people as opposed to those who are considered to be overweight individuals.
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    In samples drawn from weight-control programs, the overall prevalence varies from approximately 15% to 50% (with a mean of 30%), with females approximately 1.5 times more likely to have this eating pattern than males. In non-patient community samples, a prevalence rate of 0.7% - 4% has been reported.
    Empirically supported treatment
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    be chronic.
    Psychotherapy
    Cognitive behavioral therapy: Some studies show that cognitive behavioral therapy may help you cope better with issues that may trigger binge-eating episodes, such as negative feelings about your body or a depressed mood. It may also give you a better sense of control over your behavior and eating patterns. However, cognitive behavioral therapy hasn't been shown helpful in reducing weight. So if you're overweight, you may need additional treatment.
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    1:04 pm

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