1. Introduction to the Sexual and Gender Idenity Disorders (See above)
2. Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (302.72)
  • DSM-IV-TR criteria
A. Persistent or recurrent inability to attain, or to maintain until completion of the sexual activity, an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitment.
B. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
C. The sexual dysfunction is not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder (except another Sexual Dysfunction) and is not due exclusively to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition.

Specify type:
Lifelong Type - this subtype applies if the sexual dysfunction has been present since the onset of sexual functioning.
Acquired Type - this subtype applies if the sexual dysfunction develops only after a period of normal functioning.

Specify type:
Generalized Type - this subtype applies if the sexual dysfunction is not limited to certain types of stimulation, situations, or partners.
Situational Type - this subtype applies if the sexual dysfunction is limited to certain types of stimulation, situations, or partners. The specific situational pattern of the dysfunction may aid in the differential diagnosis. For example, normal masturbatory function in the presence of impaired partner relational functioning would suggest that a chief complaint of erectile dysfunction is more likely due to an interpersonal or intrapsychic problem rather than attributable to a general medical condition or a substance.

Specify type:
Due to Psychological Factors - this subtype applies when psychological factors are judged to have the major role in the onset, severity,
exacerbation, or maintenance of the Sexual Dysfunction, and general medical conditions and substances play no role in the etiology of the
Sexual Dysfunction.
Due to Combined Factors - this subtype applies when 1) psychological factorsare judged to have the major role in the onset, severity,
exacerbation, or maintenance of the Sexual Dysfunction ; and 2) a general medical condition or substance use is also judged to be
contributory but is not sufficient to account for the Sexual Dysfunction. If a general medical condition or substance use (including
medical side effects) is sufficient to account for the Sexual Dysfunction, Sexual Dysfunction Due to a General Medical Condition (p.558)
and / or Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction (p. 562) is diagnosed.
  • Associated Features
A woman with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder may have very little to no sexual arousal feelings. She might feel pain during intercourse; she might all together avoid sexual intercourse or play; and she might experience disturbance or problems in her marriage or in her personal and sexual relationships. Researchers have also found that some women may experience "self-worth" or "self-esteem" issues.
  • Child vs. adult presentation
Note the Lifelong Type and the Acquired Type.
This appears to be more prevalent as women age; however there have been few studies on Female Sexual Arousal Disorder so it is not certain.
  • Gender and cultural differences in presentation
Researchers have found that women who have a higher education experience less problems with being aroused and having an orgasm. It is also noted that women who are married, rather than single, also have fewer problems experiencing an orgasm; however, have a more difficult time being aroused than women who had never been married or were divorced.
Cross-cultural there is a significant difference in how women view sexual problems; perception on what constitutes as a problem depends on how the woman views sex, the normality of sexual intercourse, the sexual knowledge she has, her partner's input and views, and other outside influences.
  • Epidemiology
The overall prevalence for FSD is at 43% and Female Sexual Arousal Disorder is a subculture of FSD so the information we take from that is:
- Low desire for sexual intercourse has been reported at 22% for women in the U.S. between ages 18 and 59.
- Arousal problems have been reported at 14% and Sexual Pain at 7%.
- Sexual pain and worries of sexual performance was reported higher in younger women.
  • Etiology
The impacts of events occurring in childhood and adolescence play important factors in the development of the disorder. The way an individual was brought up to view sex might have been negative; therefore we see misconceptions later on in life about sex, resulting in problems in sexual functioning among the individual as an adult. Stress levels, fatigue factor, and other health related issues vary among each individual, but do play a role in women having problems being aroused and having orgasms. Communication, level of affection, hostility, as well as personal factors between an individual and her partner also play a role the cause of this disorder.
  • Empirically Supported Treatments
Relaxation techniques as well as creams and jellys are ways to alleviate the discomfort. Counseling and Psychotherapy are often ways in which women get treated; here they learn how to focus on pleasurable thoughts about sex, before - during - and after sex. Imagery is also a technique used to help women distract herself from any concerns and focus on a stimulus that allows for her to be aroused.
If there are relationship problems in the marriage, often times personal counseling can help because it deals with emotional issues that may be distractors in the sexual asspect of the relationship. For medical and other ways of treatment the individual needs to see her gynecologist.